Why Russia Has Been So Resilient to Western Export Controls

Why Russia Has Been So Resilient to Western Export Controls

Following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, the United States imposed an unprecedented package of sanctions intended to make Russia pay a high economic cost for its aggression and to constrain the Russian military. U.S. President Joe Biden declared that Russia would “bear the consequences” for the invasion and emphasized that sanctions were designed to reverse Russia’s military modernization, degrade its critical industries, and impair its ability “to compete in a high-tech 21st-century economy.”

These sanctions—coordinated with allies including the EU, Japan, and the UK—spanned several industries and economic sectors, including energy and raw materials exports, and the Russian financial system. The measures also included a stringent set of technology export controls aimed at denying Russia access to components that could be used for its war machine. They targeted a wide range of technologies, from ball bearings to electrical transformers, but were particularly focused on a set of high-priority dual-use items such as integrated circuits and radio frequency transceiver modules that “have extensive commercial applications but have also been found in Russian missiles and drones on the battlefield in Ukraine.”

Read more: carnegieendowment.org

Photo: carnegieendowment.org

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